Lesson8: Annotated Bibliography #5

1. Reference

Gamlo,N.(2019). The effect of mobile device on learning motivation. The Impact of Mobile Game-Based Language Learning Apps on EFL Learners’ Motivation. English Language Teaching; Vol. 12, No. 4; 2019, ISSN 1916-4742, E-ISSN 1916-4750

2. Summary

This is the study of effect of integrating Mobile-game based language learning applications (MGBLLAs) on EFL students’ motivation to learn English in Saudi Arabia. Motivation is central when learning a language. On EFL settings, learners have difficulty in acquiring the target language without motivation. In addition, lack of motivation is one of the factors causing low English proficiency. The free MGBLLAs are used in this study: Grate Readers – reading skills, Game to learn English – grammar, Learn English Vocabulary Pop Quiz – new words. Motivation is classified in two types- instrumental motivation which aims at a specific purpose, such as passing a degree, getting a job, or travelling, and integrative motivation which aims to get to know its culture and to communicate with its speakers. Only having an instrumental motivation doesn’t lead learners to get high proficiency. One experiment showed that students confirmed the applications were easy to use and helpful. EFL students have a higher level of instrumental motivation than integrative motivation. Instructors should adjust to their students’ level and needs to accomplish high outcomes.

3. Assessment

The goal of this study is to find the effect of using mobile-game based apps on learning a language. It was obvious that MGBLLAs were highly useful to learn English. It can get students motivated.

4. Reflection

This study is related to my research from a perspective of inspiring motivation. In recent years, it is natural to use mobile device per person. Learners can achieve a high proficiency with such a function and study English easily.

Lesson12: Research Paper – first draft

The Representation of the Effective Method to Acquire English Vocabulary in EFL

  1. Introduction
    1.  The aim of this study is to explore which kind of ways are effective to easily acquire English vocabulary for EFL leaners. In Japan, many teachers teach their students new English words with a traditional way, which uses flash cards and textbooks based on paper material, especially at many junior high schools. On the other hand, students in high school learn new English words by using a vocabulary book. They no longer study English vocabulary with teacher’s help. Recent years however, the internet system has greatly improved and there are many self-learning app which use through electronic devices. In actual, many high school students come to have their own smartphone in general and always bring it even they go somewhere. That’s why they can learn English words easily and efficient if they learn English vocabulary with their mobile device. I consider that it leads to their motivation to keep learning vocabulary.
    1.  This study is significant because it might help many English learners who have a difficulty of remembering English words. High school students especially tend to face such a situation due to passing the entrance examination. They need to remember as many English words as possible in the limited time. If they use some effective strategies than general methods – for example, remembering English words by writing them many times or simply use of a vocabulary book by just speaking aloud and looking at, they can remember more and more English words. It also helps them to easily understand English contexts in daily conversation, reading, and listening as English contexts are basically consisted of grammar and English words. Consequently, I consider that English learners will improve through leaning English vocabulary with some effective strategies.
  2. The way of leaning English vocabulary in Japanese EFL contexts

High school students are learning English words by using vocabulary textbook such as TARGET1900, Sokudoku-eitango, System-eitango, Duo series and so on. And the school English teachers usually get their students buy school’s determined English vocabulary textbooks. The teachers teach vocabulary thorough the books in classes with the CDs or get them practice pronunciation of the words. Otherwise teachers say to the students that you should study some English words because you have a short vocabulary exam, and students learn English words for themselves. In addition, teachers confirm new English words appearing a textbook every classes. Before the class, students need to check the words with their dictionaries.

When the learners study vocabulary, they choice their own strategies for each. Some students learn it by writing the English words in their notebook and writing the words or Japanese meaning in color pen. After that they put the red plastic seat on the words and see them repeatedly. Others study vocabulary by writing the English words many times. When I was in high school, I learn English words by an English vocabulary textbook which was classified noun, verb, adjective and adverb part for each mixed in one section for one hundred words. I only saw the words of one section repeatedly and remembered them.

There are many strategies however, it depends on the learners’ choice. Then how can EFL leaners remember English words efficiently?

  • Research Question

・What is the effective way of self-learning to acquire English vocabulary for high school students?

  • Effective way to acquire English vocabulary

4-1 mental lexicon in learners

The first approach is how to learn English vocabulary. All learners have mental lexicon. “The mental lexicon is defined as a mental representation of words stored in memory, including a word’s meaning, pronunciation, syntactic characters, and so on” (Carrol, 1999). And it is said that there are hierarchical network model and spreading activation model in our brain. When learners study English vocabulary, it is better to recognize some related words on the same field once. Leaners are more likely to keep remembering the words and easily use in communication situations.

4-2 motivation to learn vocabulary

The second approach is to inspire intrinsic motivation. According to paper, “Intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because satisfaction is inherent in the process (Zhang, Lin, Zhang & Choi, 2017, p.59). In addition, intrinsic motivation has a relationship between to keep learning vocabulary continuously and to build up the amount of new words. That is why leaners should have an opportunity to talk English with foreign people in daily life. When they face to be in such a situation, they would try to speak English with their knowledge that they have ever learned. They would think hardly but they would not talk well as they expect. It leads to intrinsic motivation because their objection on that situation is in order not to pass the exam but to communicate with people in English.

4-3 learning vocabulary by using mobile and paper-based materials

The third approach is the way of self-learning English vocabulary. When leaners use online or mobile system on learning words, they feel more fun than a traditional way of using a textbook. The modern way to study vocabulary includes competition with other learners online and visual image which words they can remember and cannot. However, is seems that it is more difficult to keep remembering the words permanently through learning online. That is why, online leaning should be parallel to paper-based leaning.

  • Conclusion

5-1         All leaners have a mental lexicon and it is used in the situation which they speak English. Then, intrinsic motivation is involved in the motivation to continue to learn vocabulary. The best way to inspire individual intrinsic motivation is to experience a real situation in English and talk with the people in English. However, it is few chances to encounter such a real English conversation in Japan. In recent years, mobile system is extremely improved and even high school students have their smartphone per person. It is essential for them to have their own smartphone and they bring it every time and everywhere. Using mobile system to learn vocabulary is useful and it can relieve students’ hatred less than using paper-based material. If they look at the English words repeatedly, they can remember and continue to keep learning English vocabulary.

5-2 further research

I want to search more effective and efficient way to learn English vocabulary for EFL learners on the perspective of teaching. I want to be an English teacher and I will teach students English, of course including instruction of vocabulary. Therefore, I want to consider what the effective teaching way is.

  • References

・Zhang.Y., Lin.C., Zhang.D. & Choi Y. (2017). Motivation, strategy, and English as a foreign language vocabulary learning: A structural equation modelling study. British Journal of Education Psychology, 87, 57-74

・Stroud, R. (2014). Student engagement in leaning vocabulary with CALL. Dublin: Research-publishing.net. doi: 10.14705/rpnet.2014.000242.

・Zhang.Y. (2017). The Representation of Bilingual Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Acquisition. English Language Teaching; Vol. 10, No.12; 2017. ISSN 1916-4742. E-ISSN 1916-4750.・Nakaike.H. Gakusyuuhouhou no chigai ni yoru goisyutokuritu no hikakukenkyu. file:///C:/Advanced%20Writing/Paper%20ressources%20PDF

Lesson10: Outline of my research

1. Introduction

1-1 purpose of this study

1-2 significant of this study

2. The way of learning English vocabulary in Japanese EFL contexts

2-1 teaching vocabulary in high school

2-2 self-learning vocabulary of high school student

3. Research Question

・What is the effective way to teach English vocabulary?

・What is the effective way to aquire English vocabulary to high school student’s?

4.Effective way to teach and aquire in English

4-1 teaching English vocabulary by using online system

4-2 learning English words with using online system

4-3 remembering English words with paper- based materials

5. Conclusion

5-1 summary of this research paper

5-2 further research

6. References

Lesson9: Synthesis

There are three major approaches for the effective way to acquire English vocabulary for ESL or EFL leaners.

The first approach is how to teach English vocabulary. All learners have mental lexicon. The mental lexicon is defined as a mental representation of words stored in memory, including a word’s meaning, pronunciation, syntactic characters, and so on (Carrol, 1999). And it is said that there are hierarchical network model and spreading activation model in our brain. When teachers teach vocabulary in class, it is better to teach some related words on the same field once. Leaners are more likely to keep remembering the words and easily use in communication situations,

The second approach is to inspire intrinsic motivation. The motivation comes from the inherent thinking to get a satisfaction and enjoyment on the process of leaning English. In such way, learners would be motivated and try to remember English words hardly. In addition, intrinsic motivation has a relationship between to keep learning vocabulary continuously and to build up the amount of new words. That is why teachers should teach leaners words in order not to pass the exam but to use daily communication or useful situation even though the leaners know the English words.

The third approach is the way of self-learning English vocabulary. When leaners use online or mobile system on learning words, they feel more fun than a traditional way of using a textbook. The modern way to study vocabulary includes competition with other learners online and visual image which words they can remember and cannot. However, is seems that it is more difficult to keep remembering the words permanently through learning online. That is why, online leaning should be parallel to paper-based leaning.

From these approaches above, I have to consider the effective way to acquire English vocabulary on a perspective of the structure of human brain and keeping a learners’  motivation.

Lesson7: Annotated Bibliography #4

1. Reference

Stroud, R.(2014). Efficiency of the learning English vocabulary using online system in ESL country. Students engagement in learning vocabulary with CALL. doi: 10. 14705/rpnet. 2014.000242

2. Summary 

The three elements which make up students’ engagement are behavioral, emotional and cognitive factors. According to Stroud, improving student engagement in classroom task by offering Control, grabbing Attention, matching Relevant task content, building Confidence, and giving a Satisfying outcome, which briefly called CARCS. Then, experiment was administered. About emotional engagement, most students felt using Quizlet to study vocabulary was more enjoyable than using a textbook. About cognitive engagement, most student felt that using Quizlet mede them harder to rememberer vocabulary than textbooks. About behavioral engagement, is was good to give a free opportunity to choose the any method in Quizlet. In conclusion, using online vocabulary learning system such as Quizlet can increase the behavioral, Emotional, and cognitive engagement of classes compared to more traditional methods such as textbooks.

3. Assessment 

The goal of this study is to investigate the usability of using online learning vocabulary methods. Using mobile style of learning vocabulary can improve students’ motivation. But it made then more hard to remember English words. So when student learn something, it is a efficient way to use the way mixing online learning system and paper based learning.

4. Reflection

This study is related to my research in terms of motivational vocabulary learning. Recently many vocabulary learning app on smartphone are created. Once I used it and felt fun. But I couldn’t remember English words well. So I have to think the better way using both online and paper based learning.

Lesson6: Annotated Bibliography #3

1. Reference

Zhang Ying. (2017). The process of vocabulary acquisition focusing on mental lexicon, in contrast to L1 and L2. The Representation of Bilingual Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Acquisition. 10.5539/elt.v10n12p24

2. Summary

There are two assumptions concerning organization structure of L1 mental lexicon, hierarchical network model and spreading activation model. The former is that specific words are all represented as nodes and stored at the same level in human’s brain. Words are classified and stored in different categories in memory. The later is that activation of specific words starts from one certain node and then spreads to the whole network to activate other nodes associated with this. When children acquire vocabulary, they face three steps: labeling, packing, and constructing networks. Then, mental lexicon consists of lemme which contains semantics and syntax, and lexeme which contains morphology and phonology. For L2 learners, they try to acquire vocabulary through an interpretation of mother language and proceed  some steps. It is important to classify the existing words into corresponding categories and to understand the meanings directly associated with objective concepts.

3. Assessment 

The goal of this study is to examine the process of vocabulary acquisition of both L1 andL2. It is said that there are many steps and teachers should be adjusted to learners’ proficiency level. And to acquire vocabulary efficiently, they should not use mother language too much.

4. Reflection

I found that there were two kinds of domains in mental lexicon. When it comes to learning another language, it is indescribable to use mother language. In human beings’ brain, network system exists so when teachers teach vocabulary, I think it is important to be connected to words which are same categories.

Lesson5: Annotated Bibliograohy #2

1.Reference

Y, Zhang., C, Lin., D, Zhang. & Y, Choi. (2017). Relationship between motivation and strategy on learning vocabulary in EFL. Motivation, strategy, and English as a foreign vocabulary learning: A structural equation modelling study. 87, 57-74

2. Summary

 This study examined that L2 vocabulary learning, focusing on the joint influence of different motivational factors and learning strategies on the vocabulary breadth of adolescent learners of EFL in China. There are two kinds of motivation, intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM), in individuals. IM which comes from satisfaction or enjoyment is inherent, and EM focuses on attaining outcomes such as passing exam. From an SRL perspective, motivation and learning strategies are closely related. In addition, cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies influence on the latent factor of learning strategies. In the case of using IM strategy, leaners can remember vocabularies longer than using EM strategy. On the other hand, EM may support both initiation and persistence in L2 study. But it is important for teachers to motivate students with some enjoyable process.

3. Assessment

 Learning strategy has a strong connection between motivation and learning vocabulary. I should consider what kind of approach is better way. When I instruct vocabulary, I need to cite learner’s latent motivation. I think the most important thing is self-autonomy learning. Motivations come from internal factor. It is also important to learn vocabulary continuously. Otherwise it is no longer in vain.

4. Reflection

 This study related to my research in terms of persistence of learning vocabulary. I think good strategies can broaden vocabulary knowledge efficiently and effectively connecting to Structural equation modelling (SEM).

Lesson4: Annotated Bibliography #1

1. Reference

Ali, D., & Savas, Y. (2017). English Speaking Motivation. Motivation to Speak English: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective. PASAA, 53, 1-25

2. Summary

The speaking skill is an anxiety-provoking skill. When individuals speak in the target language, they often experience a high level of anxiety and thus become more unwilling to take part in conversational activities. On EFL classrooms, teachers have a very significant role in explaining failure and success in language learning contexts. Then, students’ engagement in English speaking courses is generally derived from inner motivations, such as a personal happiness and satisfaction. Learners become more motivated when teacher listens to them, gives informative feedback, sets up an anxiety-free atmosphere, offers choice. Language teachers seem to be the most important factor influencing the motivational levels of the learners in many EFL settings as they may be the only model of the target language that the learners encounter.

3. Assessment

This goal of this study is to consider what are the motivational orientations of EFL students with regard to speaking English and how do EFL leaners’ motivational orientations to speak relate to autonomous regulation, teacher autonomy support, and engagement. The first one is that the learners’ motivations comes from some individual goals or development. The second one is that teachers’ proper advices leads to leaners’ motivation. Teachers have a crucial role and progress the class. It is important to reduce leaners’ pressure on speaking English in the conversational activities.

4. Reflection

This article related to my research on the point of speaking motivation. I think that the most important thing in leaning languages is vocabulary building. What is the better way to keep continuing to study English words? I’ll consider it based on some studies.

Lesson3: A list of sources

1. Muramoto, Erica Maria, Karsten, Angela Marli, Nagatani, Luzinete de Lima, Nakajima, Yukiko (2018). Improving Four English Language Skills through the Eclectic Approach of International Educators in Japan http://hdl.handle.net/10087/12182

2. Ma, Xingxing; Wannaruk, Anchalee; Lei, Zhibin (2019). Exploring the Relationship between Learning Motivation and L2 WTC in an EFL Classroom among Thai EFL Learners https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1218721.pdf

3. Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia (2016). Effects of Tasks on Spoken Interaction and Motivation in English Language Learners https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1123941.pdf

4. Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas (2017). Motivation to Speak English: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1153672.pdf

5. Pavelescu, Liana Maria (2019). Motivation and Emotion in the EFL Learning Experience of Romanian Adolescent Students: Two Contrasting Cases https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1212663.pdf

6. Kikuchi, Keita (2019). Motivation and Demotivation over Two Years: A Case Study of English Language Learners in Japan https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1212685.pdf

7. Zhang, Yining; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Zhang, Dongbo; Choi, Yunjeong (2017). Motivation, Strategy, and English as a Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning: A Structural Equation Modelling Study https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/bjep.12135

Lesson2: the reason of my topic choice

My research topic is that what makes English learners difficult to learn English.

I like learning English and now in English major. In fact, these days I often use English when talking with my friends of exchanged students. But I didn’t like studying English when I was an elementary school student. At this time, it was difficult for me to read alphabet letters and understand the contents of sentences. I think that there are some factors to prevent English learners to learn the language. Then, I will try to make some opinions below.

At first, the factor is individual motivation. I think language learners don’t feel like studying English if they have no own goals. If they were in such a situation, they would think why I study it now and what for. On the other hands, if they have a target, they would not have difficulty continuing studying English, As for me, I have targets, which are to go to study abroad and to talk about more kind of topics with exchanged students, so I don’t frustrate and continue to study English when I encounter some difficult things.

Second, I think that the factor is the gap of the language structure between Japanese and English. It is said that there are about seven thousand languages around the world. Some structure looks like Japanese, and others don’t look like Japanese. For example, Korean and English. Korean resembles Japanese such as the structure of the location of subject, verb and noun. But the part of speech in English is quite different from Japanese. It can make learners difficult to learn English.

These reasons, I chose this topic. It is a large topic, but if I can reach some kind of conclusion with many data, I will utilize this research to English learners.